insistence that the interim measure include protection for undocumented immigrants who arrived as children killed the deal.
In a late-night vote, opposition Democrats in the Senate joined to block a bill that would have kept the government running for another four weeks.
Trump told his Twitter followers the present shutdown proved the need for more Republicans in the Senate.
Before Friday's vote, numerous Democrats and Republicans criticized the proposal to extend government funding only temporarily. And while numerous surveys show the public overwhelmingly supports finding a solution for the young immigrants in the US illegally, a CNN poll also out Friday shows that 56 percent of Americans say approving a budget agreement to avoid a shutdown is more important than continuing the deportation deferral program.
The federal government officially shut down at 12:01 am on Saturday as Republicans and Democrats remain in a standoff over a spending bill; President Donald Trump is attempting to place the blame on Democrats after lawmakers failed to get enough votes for a short-term bill to fund the government.
It's a striking display of Washington dysfunction.
In forcing a showdown over immigration - and triggering a government shutdown - Democrats have embraced a confrontational, rule-breaking strategy they once blasted as irresponsible when practiced by the other party.
Trump's and Pence's statements closely match the messaging from congressional Republicans who, in a branding effort, are naming the shutdown after Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer: the Schumer Shutdown. The Obama-era policy shields about 700,000 immigrants from deportation, those in the country illegally who were brought to the U.S.as children.
Warner, who voted against the continuing resolution that temporarily evades shutdowns, said that the D.C. region is hit hardest.
Republicans are claiming that Democrats are holding the government hostage over demands to protect 700,000 "dreamer" immigrants brought to the country as children and now living in the USA illegally.
A key vote is set to be held in a last-ditch attempt to reopen the USA government before hundreds of thousands of federal workers are forced to start the working week with no pay.
Federal employees deemed essential will be expected to report to work.
Kaine told a large crowd gathered in Washington for the pre-scheduled women's march that while the Republicans control the House, Senate, and White House, "they can't even get a budget done". They are willing to vote against a spending bill over an unrelated issue, immigration.
Nonetheless, White House budget director Mick Mulvaney predicted a deal would be reached by Monday, when most government offices are to reopen after the weekend.
But it would have cut the Deferred Action on Childhood Arrivals program, known as DACA, that affects Dreamers.
"There's not going to be any DACA talks when this government is shutdown", Arkansas GOP Rep. Steve Womack said Saturday morning. While budget negotiations have worked through a number of sticking points, including domestic vs defense spending caps, children's health insurance and disaster relief, both sides have dug in deeper over immigration - convinced the other side would blink.
The last shutdown came in 2013.
"He did not press his party to accept it", Mr Schumer claimed later. "I really think the pressure is on the president", he said.
Although Trump was personally involved in the negotiations with the Democrats to secure the funds needed to keep his government functioning, it did not reap any results. For many members of Congress, it was about making sure the opposing party would shoulder blame for the shutdown, which was being labeled as either the "Schumer shutdown" or the "Trump shutdown", depending on the party affiliation of the lawmaker.